Micronutrients in the resource loop

This research is directed at closing the micronutrient resource loop of six to eight essential micronutrients in the Dutch food system, within legal, environmental, economic and technological frameworks. The focus is on the direct (via the streams containing micronutrients) and the indirect (following the treatment of streams) reuse of the micronutrients.


In this project we aim to pay greater attention to micronutrients in the agro-food-waste system. In the past, research examined the reuse of organic residual streams, sludge streams and manure, but not from the perspective of the functional value of the micronutrients they contain. Micronutrients are – as in the case of phosphate – generally extracted from geological reserves and used in the food chain in a linear manner. The project partners strongly wish to work towards a circular use of micronutrients. The project approach includes determining the nutrient stream loads and concentrations in residual streams, the plant availability of these micronutrients, and the development of value chains for recycled micronutrients.


This project’s objective is to establish a basis for closing the resource loop of essential micronutrients in the entire food chain (=agro-food-waste system). We aim to determine the balance (concentrations and loads) of micronutrients at the ‘back end’ (residual streams such as treatment sludge, KGW, livestock manure, drinking water sludge, residual streams from the animal-feed and food industry), and gain a better understand of their origin and current destinations. The focus will be on six to eight micronutrients that the project partners identified as the most relevant, for example, Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Boron (B), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Zink (Zn).


This project will produce a set of working methods (combination of management and technology) for the use of promising residual streams with valorisation potential for the chain, through the development of innovative initiatives in the recycling of micronutrients. There are opportunities in waste and wastewater treatment for the optimal valorisation of residual streams, and thereby to contribute to the circular economy. For the agro sector, opportunities are seen that provide insight into the presence and role of the above-mentioned micronutrients in the cultivation of crops, and the development of scenarios for the recycling of the micronutrients from the waste and wastewater chains for use in agriculture.